Saturday, September 20, 2008

Rule 12(b)(1) Motion to Dismiss Standard

Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(1) motions for lack of subject matter jurisdiction generally take one of two forms: (1) a facial attack on the sufficiency of the complaint's allegations as to subject matter jurisdiction; or (2) a challenge to the actual facts upon which subject matter jurisdiction is based.
  • court reviewing facial challenge must accept plaintiff's factual allegations regarding jurisdiction as true
  • court reviewing factual challenge may not presume plaintiff's allegations are true; court has discretion to consider affidavits, other docs, and limited evidentiary hearing to resolve disputed jurisdictional facts
  • plaintiffs bear burden of proving that jurisdiction is proper
  • because fed courts are courts of limited jurisdiction, the presumption is against fed jurisdiction
  • for purposes of determining whether diversity jurisdiction exists, a person is a "citizen" of the state in which he or she is "domiciled"
  • for adults, domicile is established by physical presence in a place in connection with a certain state of mind concerning one's intent to remain there

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